►► the idea behind it was to use a half of 7400 for one "pulse driven RS-JK-trigger" . . . which might be the case if this thing can be opt-/minmized to a lesser component count (total design/build-cost) and made a lot more noise immune (can be operated in realistic env.) - it will start to oscillate if it´s shoulders components won´t match too well (which means almost precisely) -- here i just found the reasonable upper frequency limit for (about 44MHz for inp.-clk.)
the Q0 , Q1 are inter-coupled to get high-fq. readout - with lesser frequency there´s no need to couple them - and originally they were added to confirm the valid readout can be had from K and/or M gates -- so , the fast ver. of this trigger requires the full 7400
1-ce you get customized with these things (OpAmp-s) - they're nifty to use for all sort of tricks -- the below design was chosen due it's adjustability × lesser number of components compared to it´s TTL or CMOS variant
the interesting point to note here is that the КР140УД1408 : LM308 specify their lowermost supply range at ±5V(+10V) : ±2V(+4V) respectivly -- while the voltage buffer/-follower configuration still works with +5V for КР140УД1408 without any fq. compensation ??? here´s the component level model of neither* УД14 nor LM308 OpAmp-s exactly (*also coz "we" don´t know the exact transistors used in the actual thing -- nor does the circuit exactly match neither -- about What? = it's close enough to simulate both (only some 10% of Spice simulations hit the real life - the small alterations to OpAmp model won´t significantly change that figure))
the Regulator :: /̲!̲\̲ this thing seems to perform better than LE50A (STMicroelectronics) , LM78L05ACM (National Semiconductor Corporation) , MC78L05AC (Motorola, Inc.) /̲!̲\̲ when powered by 9V 6LR61 alkaline -- in a sense of IOUT/ΔUOUT . . . . . . . . . history of :: the goal : steady supply for OpAmps powered from Lo-Power battery ►► everything is good as long as you have to implement the current limit . . . so this one has 1 unintentionally "built in" (adjustable by transistor-switch current source) ::
the actual transistor used for switch is ancient 2SD1252A (Panasonic)the custom zeners are random Red-LED + Д9К (apx. 2V + 320mV drop) other BJT-s are 2N3906(-04) but you can use a better ones such as fixed beta 2SA1015 , 2SC1815 ...
!note :: altough theLE50 is labelled as "Very Low Drop" it actually performs worse than 1 of those 78L05-s and the all three b_a_r_e_l_y manage the 150Ω load with reasonable output (4.8 dn2 4.7V) . . .
. . . when the brought regulator does 100Ω with about 10mV output-drop and acts similar to above 3 at about 26Ω with 175mV drop e.g. 4.83V output -- though /̲!̲\̲ it does not have thermal protection and it's current limiting is poorly studied /̲!̲\̲
too many components for flame (color temperature (rainbow)) Christmas lights ::
B4:A4:Y4:X4 -- Red:Green:Blue:Red (!!! a color for the Flame effect -- not generated by this circuit . . .)
using switching and level hold the number of chains reduces to one -- it still might be more practical to use AD and DA converters with digital function generators (?EEPROM) , level hold switced output to gain the voltage 2 color effect of your like ... or use 4 differently biased optos or use a fine adjusted PNP NPN chain (cost efficient) , e.c. . . . the varying color predecessor of the previous -- an alternative sine generator ::
drawing (supposedly) only 125µA from the 5V source
so about :: i've made (now a total) 3 circuits that use active pre-load - all have failed due a different reasons
(i) using ~250V electrolytic capacitors in series with incandescent lamps -- the ´lytes exploded !!! (trivia) -- however it took them 1.5d (some 36h) to heat up -- later i just added more incandescents to fill the voltage gap
(ii) using ceramic capacitor before Russian Lim.?700V full-bridge . . . that actually has a std. leak - e.g. if [+][–] terminals are not connected the –[L]] –– [[~] Bridge [~]] –– [Load]––2 [[N] – connection provides enough AC for 25W incandescent as a Load to glow near it´s max brightness !!! --- everything worked correctly at nominal !!average!! values (measured by analog multimeter) but the LED and 1BJT failed after 1.5y (apx.13000h) ???
(iii) using 15nF as "200kΩ" pre-load to 60V neon lamp caused the neon´ to relatively fast dim down and collect eighter C or metal film to it´s inner surface causing more dimming (service apx.1500 + ? h) . . .
. . . so i replaced it with this ::
( it´d make sense to set at least 1 fuse close to [L] or (2-nd near [N]) terminal -- this circuit relies on 10A line protection -- i can't predict how warm the (250mW) 100 ohm limit´ll get in continuous op. and what results if it does heat up . . . ) Update/About-- (so far it does not give out any smoke) but one LED is brighter the other one -- is either the asymmetry of DB3 , a bad selection of capacitor values/ratios -- or a combination of both (some of it can be adjusted by discharge resistors , charge storage cap.-s) . . .
--- shortly -- i built an intuitive transformer to test the solar battery charger design . . . then i attempted to figure out how to drive it somewhat reasonably ---- the op.-g range for following is unknown ---- not speaking of special design for hi current high fq. pulse transformers F;X F;X F;X
the pulse generators are required everywhere not only solar-battery inverters ... so i revisited an old concept
. . . and figured out sort of a complementary v. for it
. . . and a chaos generator - though quite efficient by simulation
is higher and it has an error to the range
of the following (! not built / tested -- but i guess it's not far from it´s actual)
then i guess i gonna get this 1 PCB-d and cased in with an appropriate ( 300+mA @ 10V DC ) transformer , damn it takes long to test out what you actually need and that actually works as designed -- should've brought a random 600÷1000mA 9V SC proof linear reg. such as KA7809
. . . a lot of head ace to get to this in simulation (i wonder how the "textbooks" promote such a big number of the simplified versions of that kind of oscillator - some of which actually even simulate but with insufficient output amplitude ??? ... , near/above 1MHz X-tals likely have lesser issues)
the resistor values can be varied** from R.c ~50k(perhaps less) ÷ 4M Ω , increasing the X-Tal coupling capacities (keep Qz→Base > Qz←Collector better result in most cases) boosts startup also degrades waveforms , increasing R.e shunting capacities gives better fq. responce below the target fq. (it likely dosent boost startup) , adding C-R chain from base to ground kills some unwanted amplification ? improves waveforms especially I.qz ? adjusts/stabilizes the osc.fq. (it takes a lot of playing around to specify the type of oscillator better - i just found such frustrating at this time) -- the main point -- it uses trivial & flexy range of capacities !!! ((if you dont much change the C8,9,2 - the operating power / other component values - can be widely modified**))
LT1635 . . . to be honest - i donno what2-2 with that stuff . . .
. . . i guess i got it better this time than previously
feel free to dump or redesign
don't feel too 4 however ::x
? . . . R10,13,11 -- a linearization attempt for - supposing - the shunting regulator -- the built in reference can be slightly improved to have no front nor trailing peaks/ringing and to have better supply rejection (by special external network) which i banned however coz it made it's response slower (and it's not so important if stable supply is provided)
?? . . . ??? if i recall right the reference can't be immediately fed to op-amp (causes problems) -- and the op-amp itself tries to start ringing in all possible ways (nothing special -- it just has a narrow conditions for "normal" ?? opreation , baah . . .)
??? . . . i guess the trivial use of this stuff is that you set your reference to 0÷Vs and simply amplify this by op-amp to have ±9(/10)mA voltage source/-reference . . . it seems i've missed that sentence "The reference and buffer combine to achieve a drift of 30ppm/°C, a line regulation of 20ppm/V and a load regulation of 150ppm/mA." . . . ±10mA → max.±6.75mV for 9V Vs.TOT . . . ??? the simulation is typically 10÷1000x better than the actual thing ±15µV → ±15mV =sum. somewhat credible . . .